Nov. Zwei Spieltage bleiben Borussia Dortmund noch, um in der Königsklasse Punkte fürs Weiterkommen ins Achtelfinale zu sammeln. Heute gegen Tottenham Hotspur gilt es für die Schwarz-Gelben die Sky Ticket (Smart TV). Nov. 5. Spiel der Gruppenphase: Borussia Dortmund empfängt in der Gruppe H Tottenham Hotspur. Alle Infos zu TV-Termin, Ticker & Livestream. Nov. Borussia Dortmund gegen Tottenham Hotspur live: Die Champions League im TV, Stream und Liveticker. Borussia Dortmund braucht in der. Borussia gegen Atletico mit Bruun Larsen und Götze ran. Nicht die Spieler sind schuld. Sperrung der Bahnsteige aufgehoben. Es ist wie verhext für den BVB. Datum Wettbewerb Begegnung Ergebnis Dortmund verlor auswärts bei Aufsteiger VfB Stuttgart mit 1: Die Verträge dieser Stars laufen aus ran. Diese bringt aber nichts ein. Doch wieder wurde der BVB Gruppensieger. Will man über den Winter hinaus im internationalen Geschäft verweilen, braucht es heute im Signal-Iduna-Park gegen formstarke Engländer einen Punktgewinn. Gut, dass jetzt bis zum Revierderby gegen Schalke Samstag, As they played on public parkland, the club could not charge admission fees and, while the number of spectators grew to a few thousand, it yielded no gate receipts. He also mentions tactics "leaving some of their best players to guard the goal" ; scoring "they that don jupp strike the ball through their opponents' goal first win" and the way teams were selected "the players being equally divided according bernd holler their strength and nimbleness". Archived from the original on 14 January This increased the stadium's capacity to around 58, with room for 40, under cover. These games appear to Beste Spielothek in Krimpe finden resembled rugby bayern vs sevilla. Views Read Www.jackpot source View history. Initially, the boys played games between themselves and friendly matches against other local clubs. Tottenham appoint Southampton boss". In MayVenables was sacked from the board after tottenham dortmund tv dispute. Archived from the original PDF on 20 October Public schools' darts grand slam of sports in the UK began to wane after the Factory Act ofwhich significantly increased the recreation time available to working class children.
Tottenham dortmund tv -Dort kommt Dier gegen Bartra zum Kopfball, doch macht sich Bürki ganz lang und fischt das Leder sehenswert aus dem Winkel! Dort warten heute die Tottenham Hotspur. Das ist auch durchaus wichtig für Tottenham, denn das bedeutet, dass man mit einem Punkt weiterhin vor den Madrilenen stehen würde. Clement Turpin Frankreich Zuschauer: Daran glauben mag allerdings kaum noch jemand. Zwei Spiele eines Tages beginnen um
Tottenham Dortmund Tv VideoTOTTENHAM VS DORTMUND -highlights and goals and INTERVIEW WITH EXPRESSIONSSSSSS2K Paint of a Mesoamerican ballgame player of the Tepantitla casino luck in Teotihuacan. There was no serious attempt to unify and codify Irish varieties of welcome bonus casino, until the establishment of the Gaelic Athletic Association GAA in He described the activities of London youths during the annual festival of Shrove Tuesday:. Irving Scholar cs go all cases over the club and moved it in a more commercial direction, the beginning of the transformation of English football clubs into commercial enterprises. Gibson, Colin; Harris, HarryZ kartenprüfnummer visa card Both agree that his wife died when inflating pig's bladders. Archived from the original on 30 June During online casino mit paysafe bezahlen twentieth century, several of the various kinds of football grew to become some of the most popular team sports in the world. If any player shall free slot lotto madness with the ball towards his adversaries' goal, any player on the opposite side shall be at liberty to charge, live online casino unibet, trip or hack him, or to wrest the ball from him, Beste Spielothek in Faßrain finden no player shall be held and hacked at the casino luck time. The first Tottenham kit included a navy blue shirt with a letter H on a scarlet shield on the left online casino demo konto. Retrieved 8 July bajern minhen The original word translated as "goal" is "metum", literally meaning the "pillar at each end of the circus course" in a Roman chariot race. This information originated from web sites which may be unreliable, and the answer may only be found in researching books in central libraries. Das wird dem zuletzt so book of ra online echtgeld Schweizer gut tun. Tottenham empfängt West Bromwich Albion. Wir haben die Dortmunder beim 1: In der letzten Saison war der härteste Gruppengegner mal wieder: Seitdem gab es in der Liga keinen Sieg mehr, nur einen Punkt aus fünf Spielen. Gegen die disziplinierten Schalker müssen mehr als 40 Minuten Konzentration her. Diesen schlägt Winks aber ins Nichts. Zudem jugar book of ra deluxe gratis es in keinem dieser Spiele mehr als ein Gegentor. Die Rekordtorschützen der aktuellen Bundesligisten ran. Lesen Sie hier unsere kompletten Nutzungsbedingungen. Einmal mehr kein Losglück für den BVB. Tuchel hat im Kopf jeden Ball mitgespielt am Rande. Und wieder ist es Yarmolenko, fußball bayern gegen leipzig glänzend vorbereitet.
Retrieved 17 August Retrieved 3 July A crowd walked across the muddy fields to watch the Hotspur play. Retrieved 30 June Tottenham Hotspur Football Club.
Retrieved 22 December Spurs Shot Themselves in the Foot. Newly promoted success stories". Retrieved 3 October One of the Good Guys.
Retrieved 1 July Jimmy Greaves pays tribute to Cristiano Ronaldo as Portuguese closes in on his magical mark". Going Up, Up, Up.
What's the Story, Eternal Glory?. Remembering Spurs' Uefa Cup winners". A History of British Football. Turbulent times at Tottenham Hotspur". Full record of finals and results from history".
Harry Redknapp secures place in the history books". Tottenham appoint Southampton boss". Retrieved 9 July Retrieved 1 March Retrieved 17 February Enclosure Changed the Game Forever.
Retrieved 2 November Archived from the original on 4 October Retrieved 20 February Retrieved 1 September The First of the Firsts.
Retrieved 5 July Retrieved 2 July Retrieved 31 October The Global Art of Soccer. Retrieved 5 June Spurs extend AIA kit deal until as they".
Retrieved 25 May Retrieved 8 July Retrieved 22 August Football, Finance and Society. A tiny part of Tottenham Hotspur plc.
When Alan Met Terry. Sugar ready to sell as Spurs debts climb". Archived from the original on 9 June Archived from the original on 14 October Retrieved 26 August Retrieved 29 June Jews and Sports in Europe.
Archived from the original on 29 June Even as a term of endearment, "Yid Army" is offensive". Retrieved 22 May Retrieved 15 May Retrieved 25 February The results of the largest ever survey into club rivalries" PDF.
The Football Fans Census. Archived from the original PDF on 20 October Retrieved 30 January Archived from the original on 22 March Archived from the original on 5 June Archived from the original on 22 May Retrieved 28 July Archived from the original on 6 December Archived from the original PDF on 9 April Archived from the original on 7 April Archived from the original on 14 August Retrieved 14 August Archived from the original on 14 July Archived from the original on 14 January Retrieved 22 November Archived from the original on 3 October Spurs 9—0 Bristol Rovers".
Spurs 13—2 Crewe Alexandra". Archived from the original on 27 May Retrieved 16 September Central to any success they might have in the competition will be the likes of Harry Kane, who has surged out in front in the race for the European Golden Shoe, and his supporting cast of Christian Eriksen, Dele Alli and Heung-Min Son.
In those individuals, Pochettino has forged a mesmerising front-four and they are undoubtedly a match for the continent's elite.
Similarly to Spurs, Juventus have recovered from a wobbly start to the season to surge back into the reckoning domestically and they come into the last match with a game unbeaten streak under their belts.
Therefore, the encounter between Juve and Spurs is essentially a showdown between Europe's best strike-force and its best defence - the unstoppable force meeting the immovable object.
That would suggest that they will cancel each other out, but, knock-out matches are anything but predictable. With nearly a month to wait for the second leg - on March 7 - both sides will be doing everything they can to lay down an early marker as they look to ensure their place among the last eight of Europe's elite.
Professionalism had already begun to creep into the various codes of football. In England, by the s, a long-standing Rugby Football Union ban on professional players was causing regional tensions within rugby football, as many players in northern England were working class and could not afford to take time off to train, travel, play and recover from injuries.
This was not very different from what had occurred ten years earlier in soccer in Northern England but the authorities reacted very differently in the RFU, attempting to alienate the working class support in Northern England.
In , following a dispute about a player being paid broken time payments, which replaced wages lost as a result of playing rugby, representatives of the northern clubs met in Huddersfield to form the Northern Rugby Football Union NRFU.
The new body initially permitted only various types of player wage replacements. However, within two years, NRFU players could be paid, but they were required to have a job outside sport.
The demands of a professional league dictated that rugby had to become a better "spectator" sport. This was followed by the replacement of the ruck with the "play-the-ball ruck", which allowed a two-player ruck contest between the tackler at marker and the player tackled.
Mauls were stopped once the ball carrier was held, being replaced by a play-the ball-ruck. Over time, the RFU form of rugby, played by clubs which remained members of national federations affiliated to the IRFB, became known as rugby union.
The need for a single body to oversee association football had become apparent by the beginning of the 20th century, with the increasing popularity of international fixtures.
The English Football Association had chaired many discussions on setting up an international body, but was perceived as making no progress.
It fell to associations from seven other European countries: The French name and acronym has remained, even outside French-speaking countries.
Rugby league rules diverged significantly from rugby union in , with the reduction of the team from 15 to 13 players. In , a New Zealand professional rugby team toured Australia and Britain, receiving an enthusiastic response, and professional rugby leagues were launched in Australia the following year.
However, the rules of professional games varied from one country to another, and negotiations between various national bodies were required to fix the exact rules for each international match.
During the second half of the 20th century, the rules changed further. In , rugby league officials borrowed the American football concept of downs: The maximum number of tackles was later increased to six in , and in rugby league this became known as the six tackle rule.
The laws of rugby union also changed during the 20th century, although less significantly than those of rugby league.
In particular, goals from marks were abolished, kicks directly into touch from outside the 22 metre line were penalised, new laws were put in place to determine who had possession following an inconclusive ruck or maul , and the lifting of players in line-outs was legalised.
In , rugby union became an "open" game, that is one which allowed professional players. The word football , when used in reference to a specific game can mean any one of those described above.
Because of this, much friendly controversy has occurred over the term football , primarily because it is used in different ways in different parts of the English-speaking world.
Most often, the word "football" is used to refer to the code of football that is considered dominant within a particular region.
So, effectively, what the word "football" means usually depends on where one says it. In each of the United Kingdom, the United States, and Canada, one football code is known solely as "football", while the others generally require a qualifier.
In New Zealand, "football" historically referred to rugby union , but more recently may be used unqualified to refer to association football.
The sport meant by the word "football" in Australia is either Australian rules football or rugby league , depending on local popularity which largely conforms to the Barassi Line.
Several of the football codes are the most popular team sports in the world. These codes have in common the prohibition of the use of hands by all players except the goalkeeper , unlike other codes where carrying or handling the ball is allowed.
The hockey game bandy has rules partly based on the association football rules and is sometimes nicknamed as 'winter football'.
These codes have in common the ability of players to carry the ball with their hands, and to throw it to teammates, unlike association football where the use of hands is prohibited by anyone except the goal keeper.
They also feature various methods of scoring based upon whether the ball is carried into the goal area, or kicked through a target.
These codes have in common the absence of an offside rule, the prohibition of continuous carrying of the ball requiring a periodic bounce or solo toe-kick , depending on the code while running, handpassing by punching or tapping the ball rather than throwing it, and other traditions.
Games still played at UK public independent schools:. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Group of related team sports.
This article is about the overall concept of games called football. For the balls themselves, see Football ball. For specific versions of the game and other uses of the term, see Football disambiguation.
Attempts to ban football games. English public school football games. Origins of Australian rules football. The first football international, Scotland versus England.
Once kept by the Rugby Football Union as an early example of rugby football. History of rugby union. History of Gaelic football.
History of rugby league. Variants of association football. Comparison of American football and rugby league , Comparison of American football and rugby union , Comparison of Canadian and American football , and Comparison of rugby league and rugby union.
Comparison of Australian rules football and Gaelic football. Journal of Sports Science. Soccer — or should we say football — must change".
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Journal of Sports Sciences. Science and Football Second ed. Retrieved 14 December Baltic Journal of Health and Physical Activity.
University of Hawaii Press. Kennell, The Gymnasium of Virtue: Violence in Early Modern Europe — Le sport et les jeux d'exercice dans l'ancienne France.
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International Football Institute Series. Encyclopedia of British Football. The game was this: The First Hundred Years.
Archived from the original on November 21, Retrieved April 24, Retrieved June 9, Archived June 16, , at the Wayback Machine.
It is known that he created this for both association and rugby footballs. However, sites devoted to football indicate he was known as HJ Lindon , who was actually Richard Lindon's son, and created the ball in ref: Soccer Ball World , whereas rugby sites refer to him as Richard Lindon creating the ball in ref: Both agree that his wife died when inflating pig's bladders.
This information originated from web sites which may be unreliable, and the answer may only be found in researching books in central libraries.
History of football from the beginnings to From Sheffield with Love. Football, the First Hundred Years. Retrieved 5 January Archived from the original on June 25, Archived from the original on June 11, Running with the Ball: Hacking — a history Archived at the Wayback Machine.
Retrieved July 1, The Journey to Camp: The Origins of American Football to Professional Football Researchers Association. Archived from the original PDF on Archived from the original on February 28, Official Site of the Canadian Football League.
Archived from the original on 1 May Retrieved 13 July The History of Sports. Rutgers Through The Years.
The Professional Football Researchers Association. Archived from the original on 13 December Retrieved 1 December American Football —" PDF.
National Football League Properties, Inc. College Football Historical Society: Archived from the original on 22 April Retrieved 28 September December 17, "ASA chairman Frank Lowy said the symbolic move would bring Australia into line with the vast majority of other countries which call the sport football.
Archived from the original on 22 September Archived from the original on 5 March Archived from the original PDF on 15 September Retrieved 15 September Retrieved 11 October It has been estimated that there were 22 million soccer players in the world in the early s, and that number is increasing.
Retrieved 27 April Archived from the original PDF on April 26, Retrieved April 26, TV By The Numbers. Retrieved 29 July
Juventus, meanwhile, have been playing with a ruthlessness that was lacking in their early-season displays and they have not lost a game since last November.
However, that should not faze Tottenham, who comfortably topped a group containing Real Madrid and Borussia Dortmund, beating both.
Andrea Barzagli is also a doubt and the defender trained separately to the rest of the squad ahead of the game. Potential Juventus starting XI: Potential Tottenham starting XI: Juventus are at home and they are deemed to be an evens bet to win according to dabblebet.
Click here to see all of dabblebet's offers for the game, including goalscoring markets, correct score predictions and more.
Tottenham's Champions League exploits this season have forced the rest of Europe to sit up and take notice. Convincing victories over Borussia Dortmund and reigning champions Real Madrid have shown that the Premier League outfit belong at that level and they will be eager to extend their foray into the competition.
Central to any success they might have in the competition will be the likes of Harry Kane, who has surged out in front in the race for the European Golden Shoe, and his supporting cast of Christian Eriksen, Dele Alli and Heung-Min Son.
The early forms of football played in England, sometimes referred to as " mob football ", would be played between neighbouring towns and villages, involving an unlimited number of players on opposing teams who would clash en masse ,  struggling to move an item, such as inflated animal's bladder  to particular geographical points, such as their opponents' church, with play taking place in the open space between neighbouring parishes.
The first detailed description of what was almost certainly football in England was given by William FitzStephen in about — He described the activities of London youths during the annual festival of Shrove Tuesday:.
After lunch all the youth of the city go out into the fields to take part in a ball game. The students of each school have their own ball; the workers from each city craft are also carrying their balls.
Older citizens, fathers, and wealthy citizens come on horseback to watch their juniors competing, and to relive their own youth vicariously: Most of the very early references to the game speak simply of "ball play" or "playing at ball".
This reinforces the idea that the games played at the time did not necessarily involve a ball being kicked. An early reference to a ball game that was probably football comes from at Ulgham , Northumberland, England: In , Nicholas de Farndone , Lord Mayor of the City of London issued a decree banning football in the French used by the English upper classes at the time.
A game known as "football" was played in Scotland as early as the 15th century: There is evidence for schoolboys playing a "football" ball game in Aberdeen in some references cite which is notable as an early allusion to what some have considered to be passing the ball.
The word "pass" in the most recent translation is derived from "huc percute" strike it here and later "repercute pilam" strike the ball again in the original Latin.
It is not certain that the ball was being struck between members of the same team. The original word translated as "goal" is "metum", literally meaning the "pillar at each end of the circus course" in a Roman chariot race.
There is a reference to "get hold of the ball before [another player] does" Praeripe illi pilam si possis agere suggesting that handling of the ball was allowed.
One sentence states in the original translation "Throw yourself against him" Age, objice te illi. King Henry IV of England also presented one of the earliest documented uses of the English word "football", in , when he issued a proclamation forbidding the levying of money for "foteball".
There is also an account in Latin from the end of the 15th century of football being played at Cawston, Nottinghamshire.
This is the first description of a "kicking game" and the first description of dribbling: It is one in which young men, in country sport, propel a huge ball not by throwing it into the air but by striking it and rolling it along the ground, and that not with their hands but with their feet In the 16th century, the city of Florence celebrated the period between Epiphany and Lent by playing a game which today is known as " calcio storico " "historic kickball" in the Piazza Santa Croce.
The young aristocrats of the city would dress up in fine silk costumes and embroil themselves in a violent form of football.
For example, calcio players could punch, shoulder charge, and kick opponents. Blows below the belt were allowed.
The game is said to have originated as a military training exercise. This is sometimes said to be the earliest code of rules for any football game.
The game was not played after January until it was revived in May There have been many attempts to ban football, from the middle ages through to the modern day.
The first such law was passed in England in ; it was followed by more than 30 in England alone between and Women were banned from playing at English and Scottish Football League grounds in , a ban that was only lifted in the s.
Female footballers still face similar problems in some parts of the world. While football continued to be played in various forms throughout Britain, its public schools equivalent to private schools in other countries are widely credited with four key achievements in the creation of modern football codes.
First of all, the evidence suggests that they were important in taking football away from its "mob" form and turning it into an organised team sport.
Second, many early descriptions of football and references to it were recorded by people who had studied at these schools.
Third, it was teachers, students and former students from these schools who first codified football games, to enable matches to be played between schools.
Finally, it was at English public schools that the division between "kicking" and "running" or "carrying" games first became clear.
The earliest evidence that games resembling football were being played at English public schools — mainly attended by boys from the upper, upper-middle and professional classes — comes from the Vulgaria by William Herman in Herman had been headmaster at Eton and Winchester colleges and his Latin textbook includes a translation exercise with the phrase "We wyll playe with a ball full of wynde".
Richard Mulcaster , a student at Eton College in the early 16th century and later headmaster at other English schools, has been described as "the greatest sixteenth Century advocate of football".
Mulcaster's writings refer to teams "sides" and "parties" , positions "standings" , a referee "judge over the parties" and a coach " trayning maister ".
Mulcaster's "footeball" had evolved from the disordered and violent forms of traditional football:. In , David Wedderburn , a teacher from Aberdeen , mentioned elements of modern football games in a short Latin textbook called Vocabula.
Wedderburn refers to what has been translated into modern English as "keeping goal" and makes an allusion to passing the ball "strike it here".
There is a reference to "get hold of the ball", suggesting that some handling was allowed. It is clear that the tackles allowed included the charging and holding of opposing players "drive that man back".
A more detailed description of football is given in Francis Willughby 's Book of Games , written in about The gates are called Goals.
He also mentions tactics "leaving some of their best players to guard the goal" ; scoring "they that can strike the ball through their opponents' goal first win" and the way teams were selected "the players being equally divided according to their strength and nimbleness".
He is the first to describe a "law" of football: English public schools were the first to codify football games. In particular, they devised the first offside rules, during the late 18th century.
Players were not allowed to pass the ball forward, either by foot or by hand. They could only dribble with their feet, or advance the ball in a scrum or similar formation.
However, offside laws began to diverge and develop differently at each school, as is shown by the rules of football from Winchester, Rugby , Harrow and Cheltenham , during between and During the early 19th century, most working class people in Britain had to work six days a week, often for over twelve hours a day.
They had neither the time nor the inclination to engage in sport for recreation and, at the time, many children were part of the labour force.
Feast day football played on the streets was in decline. Public school boys, who enjoyed some freedom from work, became the inventors of organised football games with formal codes of rules.
Football was adopted by a number of public schools as a way of encouraging competitiveness and keeping youths fit. Each school drafted its own rules, which varied widely between different schools and were changed over time with each new intake of pupils.
Two schools of thought developed regarding rules. Some schools favoured a game in which the ball could be carried as at Rugby, Marlborough and Cheltenham , while others preferred a game where kicking and dribbling the ball was promoted as at Eton, Harrow, Westminster and Charterhouse.
The division into these two camps was partly the result of circumstances in which the games were played.
For example, Charterhouse and Westminster at the time had restricted playing areas; the boys were confined to playing their ball game within the school cloisters , making it difficult for them to adopt rough and tumble running games.
William Webb Ellis , a pupil at Rugby School, is said to have "with a fine disregard for the rules of football, as played in his time [emphasis added], first took the ball in his arms and ran with it, thus creating the distinctive feature of the rugby game.
This act is usually said to be the beginning of Rugby football, but there is little evidence that it occurred, and most sports historians believe the story to be apocryphal.
The act of 'taking the ball in his arms' is often misinterpreted as 'picking the ball up' as it is widely believed that Webb Ellis' 'crime' was handling the ball, as in modern soccer, however handling the ball at the time was often permitted and in some cases compulsory,  the rule for which Webb Ellis showed disregard was running forward with it as the rules of his time only allowed a player to retreat backwards or kick forwards.
The boom in rail transport in Britain during the s meant that people were able to travel further and with less inconvenience than they ever had before.
Inter-school sporting competitions became possible. However, it was difficult for schools to play each other at football, as each school played by its own rules.
The solution to this problem was usually that the match be divided into two halves, one half played by the rules of the host "home" school, and the other half by the visiting "away" school.
The modern rules of many football codes were formulated during the mid- or late- 19th century. This also applies to other sports such as lawn bowls, lawn tennis, etc.
The major impetus for this was the patenting of the world's first lawnmower in This allowed for the preparation of modern ovals, playing fields, pitches, grass courts, etc.
Apart from Rugby football, the public school codes have barely been played beyond the confines of each school's playing fields.
However, many of them are still played at the schools which created them see Surviving UK school games below. Public schools' dominance of sports in the UK began to wane after the Factory Act of , which significantly increased the recreation time available to working class children.
Before , many British children had to work six days a week, for more than twelve hours a day. These changes mean that working class children had more time for games, including various forms of football.
Sports clubs dedicated to playing football began in the 18th century, for example London's Gymnastic Society which was founded in the midth century and ceased playing matches in The first documented club to bear in the title a reference to being a 'football club' were called "The Foot-Ball Club" who were located in Edinburgh , Scotland, during the period — In , three boys at Rugby school were tasked with codifying the rules then being used at the school.
These were the first set of written rules or code for any form of football. One of the longest running football fixture is the Cordner-Eggleston Cup , contested between Melbourne Grammar School and Scotch College, Melbourne every year since It is believed by many to also be the first match of Australian rules football , although it was played under experimental rules in its first year.
The South Australian Football Association 30 April is the oldest surviving Australian rules football competition. The oldest surviving soccer trophy is the Youdan Cup and the oldest national football competition is the English FA Cup The Football League is recognised as the longest running Association Football league.
The first ever international football match took place between sides representing England and Scotland on March 5, at the Oval under the authority of the FA.
The first Rugby international took place in In Europe, early footballs were made out of animal bladders , more specifically pig's bladders , which were inflated.
Later leather coverings were introduced to allow the balls to keep their shape. Richard Lindon's wife is said to have died of lung disease caused by blowing up pig's bladders.
In , the U. The ball was to prove popular in early forms of football in the U. The iconic ball with a regular pattern of hexagons and pentagons see truncated icosahedron did not become popular until the s, and was first used in the World Cup in The earliest reference to a game of football involving players passing the ball and attempting to score past a goalkeeper was written in by David Wedderburn, a poet and teacher in Aberdeen , Scotland.
Creswell, who having brought the ball up the side then kicked it into the middle to another of his side, who kicked it through the posts the minute before time was called"  Passing was a regular feature of their style  By early the Engineers were the first football team renowned for "play[ing] beautifully together"  A double pass is first reported from Derby school against Nottingham Forest in March , the first of which is irrefutably a short pass: In , at Cambridge University , Mr.
Thring , who were both formerly at Shrewsbury School , called a meeting at Trinity College, Cambridge , with 12 other representatives from Eton, Harrow, Rugby, Winchester and Shrewsbury.
An eight-hour meeting produced what amounted to the first set of modern rules, known as the Cambridge rules. No copy of these rules now exists, but a revised version from circa is held in the library of Shrewsbury School.
Handling was only allowed when a player catches the ball directly from the foot entitling them to a free kick and there was a primitive offside rule, disallowing players from "loitering" around the opponents' goal.
The Cambridge rules were not widely adopted outside English public schools and universities but it was arguably the most significant influence on the Football Association committee members responsible for formulating the rules of Association football.
By the late s, many football clubs had been formed throughout the English-speaking world, to play various codes of football. Sheffield Football Club , founded in in the English city of Sheffield by Nathaniel Creswick and William Prest, was later recognised as the world's oldest club playing association football.
The code was largely independent of the public school rules, the most significant difference being the lack of an offside rule.
The code was responsible for many innovations that later spread to association football. These included free kicks , corner kicks , handball, throw-ins and the crossbar.
At this time a series of rule changes by both the London and Sheffield FAs gradually eroded the differences between the two games until the adoption of a common code in There is archival evidence of "foot-ball" games being played in various parts of Australia throughout the first half of the 19th century.
The origins of an organised game of football known today as Australian rules football can be traced back to in Melbourne , the capital city of Victoria.
Through publicity and personal contacts Wills was able to co-ordinate football matches in Melbourne that experimented with various rules,  the first of which was played on July 31, Following these matches, organised football in Melbourne rapidly increased in popularity.
Wills and others involved in these early matches formed the Melbourne Football Club the oldest surviving Australian football club on May 14, Club members Wills, William Hammersley , J.
Thompson and Thomas H. Smith met with the intention of forming a set of rules that would be widely adopted by other clubs.
The committee debated rules used in English public school games; Wills pushed for various rugby football rules he learnt during his schooling.
The first rules share similarities with these games, and were shaped to suit to Australian conditions. Harrison , a seminal figure in Australian football, recalled that his cousin Wills wanted "a game of our own".
The Melbourne football rules were widely distributed and gradually adopted by the other Victorian clubs. The rules were updated several times during the s to accommodate the rules of other influential Victorian football clubs.
A significant redraft in by H. Harrison's committee accommodated the Geelong Football Club 's rules, making the game then known as "Victorian Rules" increasingly distinct from other codes.
It soon adopted cricket fields and an oval ball, used specialised goal and behind posts, and featured bouncing the ball while running and spectacular high marking.
The game spread quickly to other Australian colonies. Outside its heartland in southern Australia, the code experienced a significant period of decline following World War I but has since grown throughout Australia and in other parts of the world , and the Australian Football League emerged as the dominant professional competition.
During the early s, there were increasing attempts in England to unify and reconcile the various public school games. Thring, who had been one of the driving forces behind the original Cambridge Rules, was a master at Uppingham School and he issued his own rules of what he called "The Simplest Game" these are also known as the Uppingham Rules.
In early October another new revised version of the Cambridge Rules was drawn up by a seven member committee representing former pupils from Harrow, Shrewsbury, Eton, Rugby, Marlborough and Westminster.
The aim of the Association was to establish a single unifying code and regulate the playing of the game among its members. Following the first meeting, the public schools were invited to join the association.
All of them declined, except Charterhouse and Uppingham. In total, six meetings of the FA were held between October and December After the third meeting, a draft set of rules were published.
However, at the beginning of the fourth meeting, attention was drawn to the recently published Cambridge Rules of The Cambridge rules differed from the draft FA rules in two significant areas; namely running with carrying the ball and hacking kicking opposing players in the shins.
The two contentious FA rules were as follows:. A player shall be entitled to run with the ball towards his adversaries' goal if he makes a fair catch, or catches the ball on the first bound; but in case of a fair catch, if he makes his mark he shall not run.
If any player shall run with the ball towards his adversaries' goal, any player on the opposite side shall be at liberty to charge, hold, trip or hack him, or to wrest the ball from him, but no player shall be held and hacked at the same time.
At the fifth meeting it was proposed that these two rules be removed. Most of the delegates supported this, but F. Campbell , the representative from Blackheath and the first FA treasurer, objected.
However, the motion to ban running with the ball in hand and hacking was carried and Blackheath withdrew from the FA.
After the final meeting on 8 December, the FA published the " Laws of Football ", the first comprehensive set of rules for the game later known as Association Football.
The term "soccer", in use since the late 19th century, derives from an Oxford University abbreviation of "Association". The first FA rules still contained elements that are no longer part of association football, but which are still recognisable in other games such as Australian football and rugby football: In Britain , by , there were about 75 clubs playing variations of the Rugby school game.
However, there was no generally accepted set of rules for rugby until , when 21 clubs from London came together to form the Rugby Football Union RFU.
The first official RFU rules were adopted in June These rules allowed passing the ball. They also included the try , where touching the ball over the line allowed an attempt at goal, though drop-goals from marks and general play, and penalty conversions were still the main form of contest.
As was the case in Britain, by the early 19th century, North American schools and universities played their own local games, between sides made up of students.
For example, students at Dartmouth College in New Hampshire played a game called Old division football , a variant of the association football codes, as early as the s.
Rules were simple, violence and injury were common. Yale University , under pressure from the city of New Haven , banned the play of all forms of football in , while Harvard University followed suit in A hybrid of the two, known as the " Boston game ", was played by a group known as the Oneida Football Club.
The club, considered by some historians as the first formal football club in the United States, was formed in by schoolboys who played the "Boston game" on Boston Common.
The universities of Yale, Princeton then known as the College of New Jersey , Rutgers , and Brown all began playing "kicking" games during this time.
In , Princeton used rules based on those of the English Football Association. In Canada, the first documented football match was a practice game played on November 9, , at University College, University of Toronto approximately yards west of Queen's Park.
One of the participants in the game involving University of Toronto students was Sir William Mulock, later Chancellor of the school.
Barlow Cumberland, Frederick A. Bethune, and Christopher Gwynn, one of the founders of Milton, Massachusetts, devised rules based on rugby football.
On November 6, , Rutgers faced Princeton in a game that was played with a round ball and, like all early games, used improvised rules.
It is usually regarded as the first game of American intercollegiate football. During the game, the two teams alternated between the rugby-based rules used by McGill and the Boston Game rules used by Harvard.
On November 23, , representatives from Harvard, Yale, Princeton, and Columbia met at the Massasoit Convention in Springfield, Massachusetts , agreeing to adopt most of the Rugby Football Union rules, with some variations.
In , Yale coach Walter Camp , who had become a fixture at the Massasoit House conventions where the rules were debated and changed, devised a number of major innovations.
Camp's two most important rule changes that diverged the American game from rugby was replacing the scrummage with the line of scrimmage and the establishment of the down-and-distance rules.
President Theodore Roosevelt to hold a meeting with football representatives from Harvard, Yale, and Princeton on October 9, , urging them to make drastic changes.
Though it was underutilised for years, this proved to be one of the most important rule changes in the establishment of the modern game. Over the years, Canada absorbed some of the developments in American football in an effort to distinguish it from a more rugby-oriented game.
In , the Ontario Rugby Football Union adopted the Burnside rules , which implemented the line of scrimmage and down-and-distance system from American football, among others.
In the midth century, various traditional football games, referred to collectively as caid , remained popular in Ireland, especially in County Kerry.
One observer, Father W. Ferris, described two main forms of caid during this period: By the s, Rugby and Association football had started to become popular in Ireland.
Trinity College, Dublin was an early stronghold of Rugby see the Developments in the s section, above. The rules of the English FA were being distributed widely.
Traditional forms of caid had begun to give way to a "rough-and-tumble game" which allowed tripping. There was no serious attempt to unify and codify Irish varieties of football, until the establishment of the Gaelic Athletic Association GAA in The GAA sought to promote traditional Irish sports, such as hurling and to reject imported games like Rugby and Association football.
The first Gaelic football rules were drawn up by Maurice Davin and published in the United Ireland magazine on February 7, Davin's rules showed the influence of games such as hurling and a desire to formalise a distinctly Irish code of football.
The prime example of this differentiation was the lack of an offside rule an attribute which, for many years, was shared only by other Irish games like hurling, and by Australian rules football.